Under-promotion is a chess tactic that involves promoting a pawn to a piece other than a queen. This tactic is often used in endgame situations where the player wants to gain a specific advantage, such as creating a checkmate or winning material.
Under-promotion is a powerful tactic because it allows the player to gain a specific advantage in a given position. For example, promoting a pawn to a knight can create a checkmate, while promoting a pawn to a bishop can win material. Additionally, under-promotion can also be used to create a passed pawn, which can be a powerful attacking piece.
The history of under-promotion can be traced back to the 19th century, when it was used by players such as Paul Morphy and Adolf Anderssen. These players were known for their aggressive play, and their use of under-promotion was one of the key elements that set them apart from other players.
Under-promotion is often seen in endgame situations, where the player is trying to convert a material advantage into a win. It can also be used in the middlegame, to create a passed pawn, or to create a checkmate.